Horse Health Concerns

This letter recently arrived at World of Pets:

Recently, we have noticed that our horse has been sweating a lot more and faster than usual. It gets tired faster, it has a slightly weaker appetite. He can sweat in the barn while he is resting. Is it possible that this is a disease or is it possibly caused by the age of the horse (12 years).
What is a colic?
Thank you!

Based on the symptoms described, I cannot reliably conclude what the problem is. Age is definitely out of the question because the horse is not old, namely the life span of the horse is about 20 or even more years, and even the old horse does not sweat while standing in a box or sweat normally when working at his age. From the information in question, I can only assume three situations in which the horse may be located. Or he still has a thick winter coat and the barn is warm, so because of the high temperatures (which were above average in early April) he is sweating because he is hot, or the horse is sick or has colic.

If he is sweating even now (when the temperatures are lower) it is most likely a disease. A third possibility is that the horse had colic. I can see from the question that the owner (fortunately) had no experience with colic yet. How many painful abdominal (abdominal) cramps are caused by indigestion, and can be mild to the extent that they end with the death of the horse due to bowel obstruction.

Symptoms

The symptoms are quite clear: the horse is nervous, sweating, not eating or just a little, does not have a chair or just a little, and in stronger cases he lies down and rolls, but not like a healthy horse does, but in that roll he throws himself in the box uncontrollable which is caused by the severe pain that the horse suffers. In milder cases, colic spontaneously pass, but if it becomes complicated, surgery is required, but unfortunately even then the horse is not saved. It is very important to immediately notice and recognize the signs of colic and the horse immediately get out of the barn and walk until the symptoms have stopped and also immediately call a veterinarian to monitor the condition of the horse and intervene as needed.

If the described horse still does not improve, be sure to consult a veterinarian who has experience with horses and ask for a horse to be examined.

Otherwise, it would be easier for me to respond by giving me information about the horse by gender, breed, discipline for which the horse is intended (groin, dressage, recreation, etc.) and how much the horse works (daily or weekly). Also important is whether the horse eats normal and whether he has a normal stool: It is definitely necessary for the horse to measure the temperature, and to count the heart rate (pulse) and breathing per minute. These are parameters that, when not within normal limits, certainly indicate a health problem.

It may be best for me to give an overview of the aforementioned values ​​for orientation to those of our readers who are not familiar with it.

Temperatures

For foals up to 1 year temperature 38.0 to 39.0 C, up to 100 beats per minute; for horses up to 5 years temperature 37,5 – 38,5 C degrees 45-60 beats per minute, and for horses older than 5 years 37,5 – 38,0 beats up to 1 g 30-40 beats per minute For all horses breathing is 10 – 15 breaths per minute, except for foals where it is faster.

The information given is only valid if measured in horses at rest. Temperature is measured rectally.

Canary Nutrition and Mating

Nutrition

When I was a kid, some 30 years ago, and I read something about bird nutrition, I thought it best not to mess with things like that. Specifically, it seemed as if the whole world was trying hard for no one to breed birds and that having a pet was a terrible science; I quote:
“Canary nutrition plays a decisive role in its cultivation. In order to know how to feed the canary properly, we need to know all the nutrients necessary for his body. In addition to the nutrients, we need to know how to prepare food and how to feed the canary. Nutrients for complete and proper nutrition of canary need water, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. The diet depends on the season, breeding method, age, direction of cultivation, etc. “

This is definitely true, but I only realized it (fully understood) when I passed biochemistry and physiology, and that is certainly not necessary for keeping birds as pets. Through our rubrics, I will try to make it as simple and proper as possible for you to enjoy your pets and their offerings.

In our stores you can buy extraordinary food mixes for different types of birds, including canaries. It is yours to keep an eye on the shelf life, the appearance of the packaging (it must not be wet, open, mildew, etc.) and the price. Such a seed mix is ​​given to the canary preferably at approximately the same time each day (1 teaspoon for tea or white coffee). The water should be clean and fresh and not out of the refrigerator. Put a bone cutter on the cage or in it, which the Canary can happily nibble on. It is a staple food for canaries, parrots and woodland singers suitable for cage keeping.

Occasionally (once to twice a week and not all at once) it is good to give fruits (apple slice), vegetables (lettuce, radicchio, spinach, broccoli, carrots, cabbage), honey, grated hard-boiled eggs, crumbled biscuits soaked in milk and soft food as a finished product.
It is important that vegetables and fruits are not wet, so wipe the washed leaves with a kitchen cloth or allow them to dry for a short time.

Canary-fed in this way, it will have a healthy, beautiful and comfortable voice, exactly as you wanted. It doesn’t look that complicated, does it?

MATING

There are differing opinions on the best time to breed canaries. Personally, I get the best results when I start preparing at the beginning of the eleventh (November) of the month, but I also support those growers who move this to March or April. We need to keep in mind that we create the conditions for sexual urge in birds, but let’s go in order:

The change of feathers has ended, and the growers who have kept the birds on the balcony, terrace or the like during the fine weather now definitely bring them indoors.
The room temperature should not be below 18 ° C, nor should it be too hot, as we will cause a new change of feathers, which would not be good. The cage should be disinfected (washed) and the bottom sanded with fine sand or covered with clean, regularly changing paper.

We start with an enhanced diet, giving hard-boiled eggs, soft foods, fruits and vegetables more often. The females are put on a nest (plastic, wire or wooden, 6-8 cm in diameter), covered with a cloth fastened with a string, thread or eraser by the edge, and gently pressed into the cage or gently between the two upper arms. In such a prepared nest we put two three small cloths that the female when she is ready for mating constantly puts and brings.

Males sing constantly, and females squat on the crossbar. This is an unmistakable sign that they are ready, and then you gently insert the male into her cage. He will usually do 3-4 jumps, and it is up to you whether to leave him or put him back in his cage and prepare him for another female. I usually leave them, or remove them only if they do not give the females peace of mind or later interfere with them laying on eggs.

The female starts to bear usually after 3 days, and then every one or every other day. They usually lay 4 eggs (2-8). In order for your young to hatch at about the same time, it is a good idea to take the eggs out of the nest and replace them with fake eggs (old unfertilized eggs, round pebbles, etc.) so that the female breaks (gets used to lying). When the fourth egg hatches, you return them all to the nest.

When a female clears, she only gets up 2-3 times a day for food. It is important that when you turn off the light in the room only when the females are in the nest, otherwise it may be left out of the nest, so the eggs will cool down and all the effort will be in vain. The female lays on the eggs as a rule for 13 days, but it also happens for 14 or 15 days, depending on how stale she is and how she lay.

One day before the expected performance of the young, we change the nest to hatch in the clear, taking care to return it to the same place. It happens that young people cannot make eggs, because the eggshell is hard. In this case, gently moisten the egg with wet cotton wool or cloth, or in the extreme case, carefully open it before hatching.
Good luck in the next issue on mating irregularities and lifting